THE BALANCE OF FACTS
THE BALANCE OF FACTS
THE BALANCE OF FACTS
THE BALANCE OF FACTS
The Dreamtime, or the Dreaming, portrays the Aboriginal beliefs in spiritual existence. According to the tribes that first settled down in the continent, the Dreaming's roots date all the way back to the very begging of the creation of the world. The meaning and ideology of the term is generally not so well-understood by non-indigenous people as it is referred to as part of the culture of one of the early nations, which differs from modern perceptions.
The Spirits were the creators of everything. They made the land and the seas, the rocks and the plants, the sky and the earth. They were the higher power and the Australian Aborigines spent their lifetimes honoring this power, which guided their path and shaped their way of thinking. Not only creators of everything, which could be seen as well as felt, the Spirits also gave the Aborigines the Dreaming.
The time when everything started existing according to the initial Australians, was called the Dreaming. This is the foundation of the continent's culture. The origin of the Dreaming goes way back - 65 000 years back in time to be exact. The Ancestors of the nation shaped the land, forming some parts of it as sacred. The Aborigines were very careful and overprotective of those places, strongly believing in their significance.
The Australian Aborigines are known to have believed that the world didn't have any shape and was therefore empty. Darkness dominated, and life was simply asleep, but this changed when the creation began happening. After the Dreaming and the influence of the Spirits, objects began taking shapes and came to be. They created the four elements: water, earth, air and fire, as well as all the planets, the Sun and the Moon. The Dreaming therefore is a continuous process, which never ended. It is a small cosmos on its own, unifying the past, present and the future into one.
The Australian Aborigines' home riches so many vivid areas of the continent, including Fraser Island, Tasmania, Palm Island, Groote Eylandt and Mornington Island. The Aborigines had very strong believes in relation to the powers of the land, claiming that they never owned it - it rather owned them. The only reason they were able to call it their home is because they were looking after it and the land was taking care of the people in return.
Equally important to the Dreaming was the tribes' understandings of the disappearance of the Spirits. There came a time, when the creators of everything vanished from sight. Some of them were thought to have started living in sacred places, which is why the Aborigines perceived their homeland to be so sacred. The ancestors of today's Australians used to believe that the creators started living in rocks, in water holes and some went up to the sky to guide the people from above and keep them safe. Others transformed completely, taking the forms of the rain, the lightnings and the thunderstorms so they could be part of peoples' life.
Among the hundred's different Aboriginal languages, there isn't a word to describe 'time', because to them this simply doesn't exist. Dreaming and Dreamtime are used to replace it and summarize the ideologies of the Aborigines about everything they knew, everything they could see, feel and experience. This is why the Dreaming has such a vivid, and overwhelming meaning and has survived the obstacles of time. For the past couple thousand years, the Dreaming has built a rich cultural heritage that can identify a whole nation.
Read more about the Land, its connection to people and the way it has been perceived from different generations in the very first print issue of ORIGIN. The Land Issue covers varied topics, most of which remain related to cultural aspects of the land and its importance.
A lot of people travel to explore places and learn about them which is the message that ORIGIN wants to spread. With traveling, however, comes certain responsibilities that we should all be aware of. Elephants riding has become a popular way to explore locations by land. People have been doing this as part of their trips, mostly to places such as Thailand, Nepal, Cambodia and other parts of Asia. It is a common thing to see in certain places in Africa as well. We investigated the activity to explain why it is wrong and riding elephants should be banned everywhere.
Our first print issue studies culture and traveling represented through the land. We explored various location around the globe and learned what makes the land so valuable, which nations cherish it and how it helps us establish an identity. Traveling is important to us but traveling responsibly and making an impact is what we feel proud to stand behind. This is why riding elephants as a way of amusement should be reconsidered.
Let’s talk about the details. Elephants are very caring and extremely intelligent animals. It is a well-known fact that they never forget anything. When kept in captivity instead of spending their life in the wild, elephants die younger. Unlike in other species, this is common for the gentle giants and is often a result for stress.
Many African cultures respect elephants, believing they symbolize strength, loyalty and power. However, power can be a very tender concept. Elephant used as a tourism tool suffer from great pain daily. Elephants can be hurt very severely from the weight of carrying people and a trainer on their backs. The reason for this is the design of their spines. They have sharp protrusions, extending upwards from their spine instead of having round spinal disks. The protrusions and the tissue that serves to protect them can be harmed easily from weight pressure. Once a damage to their spine has been made, there is no going back and sometimes the harm can be irreversible. While this can’t be physically seen, the harm that the chairs can do to the elephants’ skin is. It is often the case that the chairs and the weight on their back can damage the animal’s skin and cause pain to their body. The chair, called Howdah, that gets attached to their backs, rubs on their skin and can cause blisters, which can sometimes get infected.
The training that elephants are required to go through when in captivity sometimes adopts a traditional Thai ‘phajaan’ or ‘crush’ technique. Explaining the technique would compare it to the animals’ spirits constantly and continuously being broken by the means of torture and social isolation. This is done in order to tame them. Elephants are wild animals, this is their nature as they are born in such conditions. Making them safe and obedient around people requires them to go through such training. As horrible as it sounds, in some places young elephants are taken away from their mothers to be abused with nails, bull hooks and bamboo sticks to make them obey rules, given by people. The animals often lack sleep and are starved to become submissive.
Actions from such nature are cruel and harmful as the technique is used to crash the animals’ spirit. Once wild and free, elephants become a source of tourism and entertainment. Nobody, who cared about sustainable tourism should ever ride an elephant.
In a sense, elephants have a human soul. They socialise and feel everything – pain, happiness, grief, sadness etc. They spend their life building families and finding friends. The largest land animals are a gift from nature and it is our responsibility to take special care of them and make sure they live according to their nature. Many animals, who are kept in captivity, are forced to live in isolation and carry heavy loads all day long, which is a wrong way to treat them. Their strength and power shouldn’t be abused but treated gently and celebrated by people. Elephants require minimal care to stay happy and healthy, which comes from giving them freedom to behave naturally and socialise. It is our responsibility to be culturally aware while traveling and make sure to spread awareness about the problem.
You can read the rest of the article as published in the LAND issue.
A TWO-MINUTE OVERVIEW OF THE PLASTIC POLLUTION CRISIS
Explaining the dark side of plastic pollution and its harmful impact on Earth
Words: Aleksandra Georgieva
Photography: Sincerely Media
17 November 2019
The production of new plastic increased dramatically after World War II. The miracle material helped space travel, transformed medicine, revolutionised live-saving equipment, devices for water filtration, incubators and made cars lighter decreasing fuel pollution.
Ironically, over 40% of the material produced today accounts for single-used plastics. Products such as food wrappers and plastic bags are often used between minutes and a few hours, yet decomposition in the environment lasts hundreds of years.
Over the past century plastic pollution has turned into one of the most environmentally threatening issues on the planet. An estimate of 8 million tons of plastic waste ends up in our oceans each year. The skyrocketing throw-away culture combined with the overwhelming manufacturing of disposable plastic products is chocking Earth’s waterways.
In developing locations such as African and Asian countries the plastic pollution is at its worst. Waste collection is extremely inefficient, even borderline non-existent. Many other locations around the world face issues such as improper garbage collection systems and low recycling stats.
Most of the plastic that enters the oceans, comes from inland activities. Rivers are another source of carrying pollution towards our seas, gathering further waste along the way. The irreversible damage comes once plastic reaches the oceans and retrieving the waste becomes nearly impossible. A significant amount of plastics pollutes coastal waters, while ocean currents transport the rest around the globe.
Plastics are made of additives that increase their durability, strength and flexibility, while extending the material’s lifespan to a few hundred years. Once the ocean waves, winds, sunlight and other similar factors do break down plastic litter, small particles known as microplastics pollute the environment and become impossible to clean. Microplastics break down into even smaller pieces, named microfibers, which spread further into the air and reach many drinking water systems. Plastic pollution is known to harm not only human life, but nearly every other species in the marine ecosystem.
Oceans’ biodiversity is under threat as millions of animals die every year due to plastic consumption, suffocation, starvation etc. Marine organisms including endangered species suffer the effects of plastic pollution, from plankton to fish, whales, turtles and birds. Six-pack rings, fishing equipment, single-use plastic products and the broken down microplastics either cause major harm or get consumed by aquatic creatures, travelling through the ecosystem. Even land animals such as tigers, zebras, elephants, hyenas, camels, etc. are known to consume plastics, which often results in death.
The dark side of plastics threatens the population of many marine and land species, including humans. Consumption of microplastics may cause troubles to the reproductive system and may trigger many life-threatening illnesses in people alongside animals. It is confirmed that microplastics have been found across every corner of the world including the deepest point of the planet – the Mariana Trench, and the highest peak on Earth – Mount Everest.
Plastic production has been increasing by the year. An estimate of nearly 450 million tons were produced by 2015 and the number is prognosed to double by the end of 2050. Preventing plastic litter from entering our waterways is the most important step of resolving the plastic pollution crisis threatening Earth. Recycling and working towards better waste management solutions is a vital aspect of preventing further pollution. Another alternative is designing and manufacturing more reliable and eco-friendly products in the future.