THE BALANCE OF FACTS
THE BALANCE OF FACTS
THE BALANCE OF FACTS
THE BALANCE OF FACTS
The Dreamtime, or the Dreaming, portrays the Aboriginal beliefs in spiritual existence. According to the tribes that first settled down in the continent, the Dreaming's roots date all the way back to the very begging of the creation of the world. The meaning and ideology of the term is generally not so well-understood by non-indigenous people as it is referred to as part of the culture of one of the early nations, which differs from modern perceptions.
The Spirits were the creators of everything. They made the land and the seas, the rocks and the plants, the sky and the earth. They were the higher power and the Australian Aborigines spent their lifetimes honoring this power, which guided their path and shaped their way of thinking. Not only creators of everything, which could be seen as well as felt, the Spirits also gave the Aborigines the Dreaming.
The time when everything started existing according to the initial Australians, was called the Dreaming. This is the foundation of the continent's culture. The origin of the Dreaming goes way back - 65 000 years back in time to be exact. The Ancestors of the nation shaped the land, forming some parts of it as sacred. The Aborigines were very careful and overprotective of those places, strongly believing in their significance.
The Australian Aborigines are known to have believed that the world didn't have any shape and was therefore empty. Darkness dominated, and life was simply asleep, but this changed when the creation began happening. After the Dreaming and the influence of the Spirits, objects began taking shapes and came to be. They created the four elements: water, earth, air and fire, as well as all the planets, the Sun and the Moon. The Dreaming therefore is a continuous process, which never ended. It is a small cosmos on its own, unifying the past, present and the future into one.
The Australian Aborigines' home riches so many vivid areas of the continent, including Fraser Island, Tasmania, Palm Island, Groote Eylandt and Mornington Island. The Aborigines had very strong believes in relation to the powers of the land, claiming that they never owned it - it rather owned them. The only reason they were able to call it their home is because they were looking after it and the land was taking care of the people in return.
Equally important to the Dreaming was the tribes' understandings of the disappearance of the Spirits. There came a time, when the creators of everything vanished from sight. Some of them were thought to have started living in sacred places, which is why the Aborigines perceived their homeland to be so sacred. The ancestors of today's Australians used to believe that the creators started living in rocks, in water holes and some went up to the sky to guide the people from above and keep them safe. Others transformed completely, taking the forms of the rain, the lightnings and the thunderstorms so they could be part of peoples' life.
Among the hundred's different Aboriginal languages, there isn't a word to describe 'time', because to them this simply doesn't exist. Dreaming and Dreamtime are used to replace it and summarize the ideologies of the Aborigines about everything they knew, everything they could see, feel and experience. This is why the Dreaming has such a vivid, and overwhelming meaning and has survived the obstacles of time. For the past couple thousand years, the Dreaming has built a rich cultural heritage that can identify a whole nation.
Read more about the Land, its connection to people and the way it has been perceived from different generations in the very first print issue of ORIGIN. The Land Issue covers varied topics, most of which remain related to cultural aspects of the land and its importance.
A lot of people travel to explore places and learn about them which is the message that ORIGIN wants to spread. With traveling, however, comes certain responsibilities that we should all be aware of. Elephants riding has become a popular way to explore locations by land. People have been doing this as part of their trips, mostly to places such as Thailand, Nepal, Cambodia and other parts of Asia. It is a common thing to see in certain places in Africa as well. We investigated the activity to explain why it is wrong and riding elephants should be banned everywhere.
Our first print issue studies culture and traveling represented through the land. We explored various location around the globe and learned what makes the land so valuable, which nations cherish it and how it helps us establish an identity. Traveling is important to us but traveling responsibly and making an impact is what we feel proud to stand behind. This is why riding elephants as a way of amusement should be reconsidered.
Let’s talk about the details. Elephants are very caring and extremely intelligent animals. It is a well-known fact that they never forget anything. When kept in captivity instead of spending their life in the wild, elephants die younger. Unlike in other species, this is common for the gentle giants and is often a result for stress.
Many African cultures respect elephants, believing they symbolize strength, loyalty and power. However, power can be a very tender concept. Elephant used as a tourism tool suffer from great pain daily. Elephants can be hurt very severely from the weight of carrying people and a trainer on their backs. The reason for this is the design of their spines. They have sharp protrusions, extending upwards from their spine instead of having round spinal disks. The protrusions and the tissue that serves to protect them can be harmed easily from weight pressure. Once a damage to their spine has been made, there is no going back and sometimes the harm can be irreversible. While this can’t be physically seen, the harm that the chairs can do to the elephants’ skin is. It is often the case that the chairs and the weight on their back can damage the animal’s skin and cause pain to their body. The chair, called Howdah, that gets attached to their backs, rubs on their skin and can cause blisters, which can sometimes get infected.
The training that elephants are required to go through when in captivity sometimes adopts a traditional Thai ‘phajaan’ or ‘crush’ technique. Explaining the technique would compare it to the animals’ spirits constantly and continuously being broken by the means of torture and social isolation. This is done in order to tame them. Elephants are wild animals, this is their nature as they are born in such conditions. Making them safe and obedient around people requires them to go through such training. As horrible as it sounds, in some places young elephants are taken away from their mothers to be abused with nails, bull hooks and bamboo sticks to make them obey rules, given by people. The animals often lack sleep and are starved to become submissive.
Actions from such nature are cruel and harmful as the technique is used to crash the animals’ spirit. Once wild and free, elephants become a source of tourism and entertainment. Nobody, who cared about sustainable tourism should ever ride an elephant.
In a sense, elephants have a human soul. They socialise and feel everything – pain, happiness, grief, sadness etc. They spend their life building families and finding friends. The largest land animals are a gift from nature and it is our responsibility to take special care of them and make sure they live according to their nature. Many animals, who are kept in captivity, are forced to live in isolation and carry heavy loads all day long, which is a wrong way to treat them. Their strength and power shouldn’t be abused but treated gently and celebrated by people. Elephants require minimal care to stay happy and healthy, which comes from giving them freedom to behave naturally and socialise. It is our responsibility to be culturally aware while traveling and make sure to spread awareness about the problem.
You can read the rest of the article as published in the LAND issue.
THE GREAT BARRIER REEF IS BLEACHED TO DEATH
The world’s largest coral reef system is dying. But can it be saved?
Words: Aleksandra Georgieva
Photography: Israel Gil, Francesco Ungaro
00 April 2021
The vivid corals in Australia’s natural wonder attract over two million visitors each year. The skyrocketing tourism figures generate the country around A$6bn (£3.3bn) a year, creating 70,000 jobs. Yet, the reef is dying. In fact, half of it is already dead.
Skeletons of branches are tangled at the sea floor where once used to be a rare technicolour of corals, creating one of the most fascinating ecosystems on Earth. Corals share a symbiotic relationship with single-cell algae, known as zooxanthella, which acts as sunscreen absorbing UV rays. The zooxanthella also uses photosynthesis to nourish corals with carbohydrates. Yet, that relationship weakens when corals become too stressed and poisoning begins to take over.
Coral bleaching is caused when the waters they live in become too hot. Temperatures fluctuation, largely caused by global warming, takes away the colours of corals, leaving them white – hence the term. Belching doesn’t only take away the colour but with time, it kills corals. Today over 90 per cent of the Great Barrier Reef has been affected by bleaching. Most major reef regions face similar fate, including the Caribbean, Hawaii, Florida, the Red Sea and Japan's Ryukyu Islands. While coral colonies cover only 0.1 per cent of the ocean floor, they harbour an entire quarter of all marine species.
According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) we have been aware that the intensity and frequency of coral reef bleaching has been increasing since the early 1980s. According to NOAA’s Mark Eakin “global-scale events in 1998 and the ongoing 2014-16 event show global warming is increasing the damage to corals." While devastating damage to global reef systems is already taking place, we must remember there is still something we can do about it. As long as we don’t think of the issue as too big to tackle, we could still help prevent absolute losses.
The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority advises tourists to reconsider their plans of visiting the Great Barrier Reef for several reasons. While tourism may employ thousands of locals, who rely on travellers for their livelihood, there are various sustainable ways to travel that visitors should consider. For once, reaching Queensland is usually a long journey for the majority of tourists. Long flights create emissions that affect many aspects of life, including marine ecosystems like the ones in the reef.
THIS IS HOW YOU CAN HELP:
If you are planning a visit to the Great Barrier Reef, you must know that seeing it is an important part of inspiring people to engage with its future. However, you may want to consider how you could limit your environmental impact.
Seek out ethical airline companies, best found through a certified operator such as Ecotourism Australia. Many companies offer various ways to contribute to the reef such as travelling on a low-emission boat with a marine biologist on board to explain both the wonders and the prospects of the world’s largest coral reef system. Such company is Responsible Travel, which is UK-based and organises several reef trips throughout the year.
Any damage to coral reefs is a devastating loss to all marine ecosystems on the planet. There are many ways to limit our environmental footprint on daily basis. Perhaps the most important act we could embrace as individuals, is to ditch fossil fuels – one of the biggest contributors to global warming and consequently to coral bleaching as well. Coral reefs around the world are delicate ecosystems that require a balance of clear waters to survive. If planning on flying, try to offset your carbon emissions. Worldwide prevention of overfishing and pollution is also essential for saving not only the Great Barrier Reef but all coral reefs across the globe from dying completely.