THE BALANCE OF FACTS
THE BALANCE OF FACTS
THE BALANCE OF FACTS
THE BALANCE OF FACTS
The Dreamtime, or the Dreaming, portrays the Aboriginal beliefs in spiritual existence. According to the tribes that first settled down in the continent, the Dreaming's roots date all the way back to the very begging of the creation of the world. The meaning and ideology of the term is generally not so well-understood by non-indigenous people as it is referred to as part of the culture of one of the early nations, which differs from modern perceptions.
The Spirits were the creators of everything. They made the land and the seas, the rocks and the plants, the sky and the earth. They were the higher power and the Australian Aborigines spent their lifetimes honoring this power, which guided their path and shaped their way of thinking. Not only creators of everything, which could be seen as well as felt, the Spirits also gave the Aborigines the Dreaming.
The time when everything started existing according to the initial Australians, was called the Dreaming. This is the foundation of the continent's culture. The origin of the Dreaming goes way back - 65 000 years back in time to be exact. The Ancestors of the nation shaped the land, forming some parts of it as sacred. The Aborigines were very careful and overprotective of those places, strongly believing in their significance.
The Australian Aborigines are known to have believed that the world didn't have any shape and was therefore empty. Darkness dominated, and life was simply asleep, but this changed when the creation began happening. After the Dreaming and the influence of the Spirits, objects began taking shapes and came to be. They created the four elements: water, earth, air and fire, as well as all the planets, the Sun and the Moon. The Dreaming therefore is a continuous process, which never ended. It is a small cosmos on its own, unifying the past, present and the future into one.
The Australian Aborigines' home riches so many vivid areas of the continent, including Fraser Island, Tasmania, Palm Island, Groote Eylandt and Mornington Island. The Aborigines had very strong believes in relation to the powers of the land, claiming that they never owned it - it rather owned them. The only reason they were able to call it their home is because they were looking after it and the land was taking care of the people in return.
Equally important to the Dreaming was the tribes' understandings of the disappearance of the Spirits. There came a time, when the creators of everything vanished from sight. Some of them were thought to have started living in sacred places, which is why the Aborigines perceived their homeland to be so sacred. The ancestors of today's Australians used to believe that the creators started living in rocks, in water holes and some went up to the sky to guide the people from above and keep them safe. Others transformed completely, taking the forms of the rain, the lightnings and the thunderstorms so they could be part of peoples' life.
Among the hundred's different Aboriginal languages, there isn't a word to describe 'time', because to them this simply doesn't exist. Dreaming and Dreamtime are used to replace it and summarize the ideologies of the Aborigines about everything they knew, everything they could see, feel and experience. This is why the Dreaming has such a vivid, and overwhelming meaning and has survived the obstacles of time. For the past couple thousand years, the Dreaming has built a rich cultural heritage that can identify a whole nation.
Read more about the Land, its connection to people and the way it has been perceived from different generations in the very first print issue of ORIGIN. The Land Issue covers varied topics, most of which remain related to cultural aspects of the land and its importance.
A lot of people travel to explore places and learn about them which is the message that ORIGIN wants to spread. With traveling, however, comes certain responsibilities that we should all be aware of. Elephants riding has become a popular way to explore locations by land. People have been doing this as part of their trips, mostly to places such as Thailand, Nepal, Cambodia and other parts of Asia. It is a common thing to see in certain places in Africa as well. We investigated the activity to explain why it is wrong and riding elephants should be banned everywhere.
Our first print issue studies culture and traveling represented through the land. We explored various location around the globe and learned what makes the land so valuable, which nations cherish it and how it helps us establish an identity. Traveling is important to us but traveling responsibly and making an impact is what we feel proud to stand behind. This is why riding elephants as a way of amusement should be reconsidered.
Let’s talk about the details. Elephants are very caring and extremely intelligent animals. It is a well-known fact that they never forget anything. When kept in captivity instead of spending their life in the wild, elephants die younger. Unlike in other species, this is common for the gentle giants and is often a result for stress.
Many African cultures respect elephants, believing they symbolize strength, loyalty and power. However, power can be a very tender concept. Elephant used as a tourism tool suffer from great pain daily. Elephants can be hurt very severely from the weight of carrying people and a trainer on their backs. The reason for this is the design of their spines. They have sharp protrusions, extending upwards from their spine instead of having round spinal disks. The protrusions and the tissue that serves to protect them can be harmed easily from weight pressure. Once a damage to their spine has been made, there is no going back and sometimes the harm can be irreversible. While this can’t be physically seen, the harm that the chairs can do to the elephants’ skin is. It is often the case that the chairs and the weight on their back can damage the animal’s skin and cause pain to their body. The chair, called Howdah, that gets attached to their backs, rubs on their skin and can cause blisters, which can sometimes get infected.
The training that elephants are required to go through when in captivity sometimes adopts a traditional Thai ‘phajaan’ or ‘crush’ technique. Explaining the technique would compare it to the animals’ spirits constantly and continuously being broken by the means of torture and social isolation. This is done in order to tame them. Elephants are wild animals, this is their nature as they are born in such conditions. Making them safe and obedient around people requires them to go through such training. As horrible as it sounds, in some places young elephants are taken away from their mothers to be abused with nails, bull hooks and bamboo sticks to make them obey rules, given by people. The animals often lack sleep and are starved to become submissive.
Actions from such nature are cruel and harmful as the technique is used to crash the animals’ spirit. Once wild and free, elephants become a source of tourism and entertainment. Nobody, who cared about sustainable tourism should ever ride an elephant.
In a sense, elephants have a human soul. They socialise and feel everything – pain, happiness, grief, sadness etc. They spend their life building families and finding friends. The largest land animals are a gift from nature and it is our responsibility to take special care of them and make sure they live according to their nature. Many animals, who are kept in captivity, are forced to live in isolation and carry heavy loads all day long, which is a wrong way to treat them. Their strength and power shouldn’t be abused but treated gently and celebrated by people. Elephants require minimal care to stay happy and healthy, which comes from giving them freedom to behave naturally and socialise. It is our responsibility to be culturally aware while traveling and make sure to spread awareness about the problem.
You can read the rest of the article as published in the LAND issue.
THE MOST LIFELESS PLACES ON EARTH
Take a look at some of the most lifeless places on Earth. From Ethiopia to Antarctica, there are locations where the conditions don’t allow even microorganisms and bacteria to exist
Words: Emily Georgieva
Photography: Erin Hervey
28 January 2020
Recently scientists found a place in Ethiopia that is completely deprived of all forms of life, following information posted by National Geographic. But there are also other locations across Earth where the conditions don’t allow life to exist. We take a look at some of the spots on the planet’s surface where nothing, not even bacteria and microorganisms manage to survive.
Dalol Valley, Ethiopia
According to French scientists, no bacteria could ever exist in the. Usually the presence of water on land surface signifies possibility for life to spread in the area, however this is not always the case. The Nature Ecology & Evolution magazine reports studies by scientists proving that even water is not a factor when it comes to determining the impossibility of a habitat. The water in the Dalol Valley is extremely hot, 108°C. The salt levels and the high saturation with magnesium turns the water into a no-source for any form of life.
The South Pacific Seabed
This place is not like the rest of the Ocean. The water surface that covers Earth is usually thought of as a source of life and this is true for the bigger part of it. The Ocean is an amazing place hosting unique forms of life that cannot be found anywhere else. However, certain patches such as the South Pacific Seabed are among the very few places on the seafloor where as little as roughly 1000 living cells are found to exist.
McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica
The McMurdo Dry Valleys are known as one of the most lifeless places there are. Not even microbes can survive there. This place is completely sterile and uninhabitable. It is also hard to reach due to its location, although there is nothing much to be seen in the incredibly dry area.
Pitch Lake, Trinidad
The Pitch Lake is a storage for asphalt – the largest one ever in fact. This place in the Caribbean is also a natural lake, which in a way gives it an extra bit of uniqueness.
The Atacama Desert, Chile
The Atacama Desert is known is the driest place on Earth – this alone says it all. Some places across the desert do not favour any form of life at all. This is due to the rough conditions in the area. Nature has made the Atacama Desert unique and it is meant to be appreciated only from afar. Some places in the area have not even been discovered yet. The Atacama Desert is currently used as a training ground for potential future Mars expeditions.
Don Juan, Antarctica
Another place in Antarctica, Don Juan, is known for the extremely rough weather conditions. The temperatures of the water in this region sometimes drop to -30°C. Yet, the water never freezes. This is due to the unusual level of salt that doesn’t allow the water to turn to ice. The Don Juan water is 40% saltier than the ocean, whereas the Dead Sea compares to 33 per cent.
Yellowstone's Hot Springs, USA
The temperature of the hot springs in Yellowstone is too high to support many forms of life. This spot in the States is an attraction often visited by tourists. Even though you might not expect that, there is a bed for bacteria there, which has the enzyme used by scientists to make copies of DNA. The bacteria use the asid-sauna habitat to survive.
The Dead Sea, Jordan, Palestine and Israel
The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth on dry land. It stands at -427m below sea level. The hyper salty water makes the place no home for any creature. What is perhaps most interesting about this location, is the fact that it helps life on Earth. Since ancient times people have used the mud and the highly mineralised water for health purposes. In that sense the Dead Sea could be considered an oxymoron. It serves to prove that the lack of life does not necessarily mean a place cannot contribute to the development of live on Earth.